This project contains an example implementation of Akka persistence and Akka persistence query. Here, we will focus on the implementation details in this project. Please see the Akka documentation for a more detailed discussion about Akka persistence query.

An example implementation of Akka persistence query

This project builds on the Akka persistence project, which builds on the cluster sharding project. While the prior Akka persistence project focused on the creation and persistence of events, this project includes both the creation of events, the write side of CQRS, and it consists of the propagation of events to the read side of CQRS.

Follow the code in the Runner class, and there you will see how the write-side and the read-side processes are started. The write-side in this project is a clone of the write-side in the Akka persistence project. In addition to the write-side classes, this project includes a set of what are called read-side processor classes.

The read-side processing flow is driven through the use of a cluster singleton and cluster sharding. Let’s walk through the code.

private static void startupReadSide(ActorSystem actorSystem) {

The Runner class starts the read-side by invoking the startupReadSide(actorSystem) method, which in turn invokes the createReadSideClusterSingletonManagerActor(actorSystem) method.

private static void createReadSideClusterSingletonManagerActor(ActorSystem actorSystem) {
    ClusterSingletonManagerSettings settings = ClusterSingletonManagerSettings.create(actorSystem);
    Props clusterSingletonManagerProps = ClusterSingletonManager.props(

    actorSystem.actorOf(clusterSingletonManagerProps, "clusterSingletonManager");

Note that this cluster singleton actor is the ReadSideProcessorHeartbeatSingletonActor class. This singleton actor is passed a cluster shard region actor reference, which is created in the setupReadSideClusterSharding(actorSystem) method.

private static ActorRef setupReadSideClusterSharding(ActorSystem actorSystem) {
    ClusterShardingSettings settings = ClusterShardingSettings.create(actorSystem);
    return ClusterSharding.get(actorSystem).start(

In this example implementation, the read-side processing flow relies on a cluster singleton actor to bootstrap and keep the read-side processing actors running.

private void heartbeat() {
    log().info("Heartbeat {}", ReadSideProcessorActor.Tag.tags());
    ReadSideProcessorActor.Tag.tags().forEach(tag -> shardRegion.tell(tag, self()));

The cluster singleton actor ReadSideProcessorHeartbeatSingletonActor schedules a heartbeat interval message. On each heartbeat, the singleton actor sends a message to each ReadSideProcessorActor instance. This message is composed of a tag. So what is a tag?

A brief overview of event tags

You may recall that as events are persisted they were tagged.

private void deposit(EntityMessage.DepositCommand depositCommand) {"{} <- {}", depositCommand, sender());
    persist(tagCommand(depositCommand), taggedEvent -> handleDeposit(depositCommand, taggedEvent));

Note that in the call to the persist method in the EntityPersistenceActor class, the tagCommand method is invoked.

private static Tagged tagCommand(EntityMessage.DepositCommand depositCommand) {
    return new Tagged(new EntityMessage.DepositEvent(depositCommand), EntityMessage.eventTag(depositCommand));

The tagCommand method returns a Tagged object, which is an Akka persistence tagged event object. Tags are used to partition events into groups. These tagged groups are used to allow for processing events from the write-side to the read-side in parallel. The goal here is to run in parallel multiple read-side processes that are each reading tagged events that are created and persisted on the write-side. Each read-side processor handles all of the events for a specific tag. As we will see, the read-side processors each start a stream of events from the write-side. These write-side events are then used to update read-side views of the data. In this example, we will not be writing the events to a read-side database. The last step of updating the read-side views is very application specific, so this part is not implemented.

This parallel processing is often used when the persisting of events on the write-side is much faster than a single serial process of moving events to the read-side. Tags are used to start multiple concurrent read-side processors. See the documentations EventsByPersistenceIdQuery and CurrentEventsByPersistenceIdQuery for more details.

Now back to parallel read-side processing

As previously discussed, a cluster singleton actor uses a heartbeat to trigger sending tag messages to a shard region actor. The shard region actor forwards each tag message to a ReadSideProcessorActor. Each ReadSideProcessorActor instance creates an instance of a ReadSideProcessorEventTagActor, which is created using what is called a backoff supervisor.

private void heartbeat(Tag tag) {
    log().info("Heartbeat {}", tag);

    if (readSideProcessorEventTag == null) {
        Props props = BackoffSupervisor.props(
                String.format("tag-%s", tag.value),
                FiniteDuration.create(1, TimeUnit.SECONDS),
                FiniteDuration.create(39, TimeUnit.SECONDS),
        readSideProcessorEventTag = context().system().actorOf(props, String.format("supervisor-%s", tag.value));

The heartbeat method in the ReadSideProcessorActor creates a backoff supervisor for the ReadSideProcessorEventTagActor. The reason for using a backoff supervisor is to provide a way to handle problems dealing with failures that occur while accessing external databases. In this example the ReadSideProcessorEventTagActor reads events from the write-side database. When the database is unavailable for some reason, this actor will fail and throw an exception. When an external service, such as a database, is unavailable often circuit breakers and retry loops are used to gracefully recover from these failures. This is exactly what a backoff supervisor provides. See the Akka documentation Delayed restarts with the BackoffSupervisor pattern for more details.

private CompletionStage<List<Row>> readTagOffset(Materializer materializer) {
    PreparedStatement preparedStatement = session.prepare(String.format("SELECT offset FROM %s.tag_read_progress WHERE tag = ?", keyspaceName));
    return CassandraSource.create(preparedStatement.bind(tag.value), session).runWith(Sink.seq(), materializer);

The ReadSideProcessorEventTagActor class does the actual reading from the write-side event store. This class uses a custom Cassandra table to store offsets by tag. Each time an instance of this actor is started it first recovers the offset of the last successfully read event. This offset is then used to resume reading event from that offset point on.

private void readEventsByTag(List<Row> rows) {
    if (rows.size() > 0) {
    } else {

The results of the offset query are examined in the readEventsByTag method. The method handles the case when no offset has yet been stored for a given tag.

private void readEventsByTag(UUID uuid) {

The readEventsByTag(UUID uuid) converts the retrieved offset from a UUID to an Akka persistence Offset type.

private void readEventsByTag(Offset offset) {
    log().info("Read {} from offset {}", tag, offset);
    CassandraReadJournal cassandraReadJournal =
            PersistenceQuery.get(context().system()).getReadJournalFor(CassandraReadJournal.class, CassandraReadJournal.Identifier());

    cassandraReadJournal.eventsByTag(tag.value, offset).runForeach(this::handleEvent, actorMaterializer);

The readEventsByTag method creates and Akka stream of events. The stream is created using the Akka Persistence Cassandra Events by Tag. Each streamed event is passed to the handleReadSideEvent method.

private void handleReadSideEvent(EventEnvelope eventEnvelope) {
  log().info("Read-side {}", eventEnvelope);

  // TODO These events are stored in a read-side database.
  // To keep things simple storing events to a read-side database is not implemented.

  // todo add something to do updates every Nth event

private void updateTagOffset(Offset offset) {
    CassandraSource.create(preparedUpdateStatement.bind(((TimeBasedUUID) offset).value(), tag.value), session).runWith(Sink.seq(), actorMaterializer)
            .exceptionally(t -> {
                throw new RuntimeException(String.format("Update tag_read_progress, %s failed!", tag), t);

The streamed events are passed to the headleReadSideEvent method. Here two things need to be handled. The main task is to use the event to update a read-side database. This activity is very application specific. As mentioned in the comments, this was not implemented to keep things simple.

Also, note that the event offset is stored using the updateTagOffset method. In this implementation, the offset is stored for each event. A possible optimization would be to store the offset less frequently.

We’ve completed the tour through the read-side implementation in this example project. This read-side processor implementation is built using everything that was covered in the prior five example projects. The write-side and the read-side are running in an Akka cluster, which was introduced in the first example project akka-java-cluster. While the example code did not directly use any cluster-aware actors, covered in the akka-java-cluster-aware project, this type of actor is used to implement cluster singleton actors, and it is heavily used internally with cluster sharding.

A cluster singleton, covered in the akka-java-cluster-singleton project, is used to bootstrap the read-side actors. The read-side is implemented using cluster sharding, which was covered in the akka-java-cluster-sharding project. Cluster sharding is used to run parallel read-side processor actors that process events by tag.

There is a somewhat subtle feature of the implementation of the cluster singleton and cluster sharding in this project. The cluster singleton is continually sending messages to the read-side tag processor actors. The subtle reason for doing this is to make sure that each read-side processor is running and they continue to run as cluster nodes are added and removed from the cluster.

Let’s walk through a simple example scenario. Say there are five tags so therefore we need to run five read-side processor actors, one for each tag. Say the cluster is running with three nodes and the five read-side processor actors are distributed across the cluster. Two actors on node one, one of node two, and two on node three.

What happens when one of the cluster nodes is removed? Well, cluster sharding knows how to redistribute the read-side processor actors across the remaining two cluster nodes. However, cluster sharding does not restart the sharded actors. Something else needs to trigger the actor restart. This is where our cluster singleton actor comes in. On the next heartbeat, the cluster singleton actor sends messages to each read-side processor actor. These messages are sent to a cluster region actor. If an instance of the target actor is not available, the cluster sharding actors will create an instance. The result in this example scenario is that the read-side processor actor that was running on the now gone node two is now restarted on one of the remaining nodes.


git clone
cd akka-java-cluster-persistence
mvn clean package

The Maven command builds the project and creates a self contained runnable JAR.

Install and run Cassandra

For Cassandra installation please see the “Installing Cassandra” documentation.

One of the easiest ways to use Cassandra for testing is to download the tar file, uncompress the files, and run a Cassandra process in the background.

tar -xzvf apache-cassandra-3.6-bin.tar.gz
cd apache-cassandra-3.6
./bin cassandra -f

This installs a ready to run version of Cassandra.

Note: Make sure to use Java 8 to run Cassandra.

Tip: The default location of the database files is data directory within the Cassandra installation directory. To reset with an empty database stop Cassandra, remove the data directory and restart Cassandra.

Run a cluster

Run a cluster on Mac, Linux

The project contains a set of scripts that can be used to start and stop individual cluster nodes or start and stop a cluster of nodes.

The main script ./akka is provided to run a cluster of nodes or start and stop individual nodes. Use ./akka node start [1-9] | stop to start and stop individual nodes and ./akka cluster start [1-9] | stop to start and stop a cluster of nodes. The cluster and node start options will start Akka nodes on ports 2551 through 2559. Both stdin and stderr output is sent to a file in the /tmp directory using the file naming convention /tmp/<project-dir-name>-N.log.

Start node 1 on port 2551 and node 2 on port 2552.

./akka node start 1
./akka node start 2

Stop node 3 on port 2553.

./akka node stop 3

Start a cluster of four nodes on ports 2551, 2552, 2553, and 2554.

./akka cluster start 4

Stop all currently running cluster nodes.

./akka cluster stop

You can use the ./akka cluster start [1-9] script to start multiple nodes and then use ./akka node start [1-9] and ./akka node stop [1-9] to start and stop individual nodes.

Use the ./akka node tail [1-9] command to tail -f a log file for nodes 1 through 9.

The ./akka cluster status command displays the status of a currently running cluster in JSON format using the Akka Management extension Cluster Http Management.

Run a cluster on Windows, command line

The following Maven command runs a signle JVM with 3 Akka actor systems on ports 2551, 2552, and a radmonly selected port.

mvn exec:java

Use CTRL-C to stop.

To run on specific ports use the following -D option for passing in command line arguements.

mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="2551"

The default no arguments is equilevalant to the following.

mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="2551 2552 0"

A common way to run tests is to start single JVMs in multiple command windows. This simulates running a multi-node Akka cluster.

For example, run the following 4 commands in 4 command windows.

mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="2551" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-1.log
mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="2552" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-2.log
mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="0" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-3.log
mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="0" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-4.log

This runs a 4 node Akka cluster starting 2 nodes on ports 2551 and 2552, which are the cluster seed nodes as configured and the application.conf file.

And 2 nodes on randomly selected port numbers.

The optional redirect > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-4.log is an example for pushing the log output to filenames based on the project direcctory name.

For convenience, in a Linux command shell define the following aliases:

alias p1='cd ~/akka-java/akka-java-cluster'
alias p2='cd ~/akka-java/akka-java-cluster-aware'
alias p3='cd ~/akka-java/akka-java-cluster-singleton'
alias p4='cd ~/akka-java/akka-java-cluster-sharding'
alias p5='cd ~/akka-java/akka-java-cluster-persistence'
alias p6='cd ~/akka-java/akka-java-cluster-persistence-query'

alias m1='clear ; mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="2551" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-1.log'
alias m2='clear ; mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="2552" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-2.log'
alias m3='clear ; mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="0" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-3.log'
alias m4='clear ; mvn exec:java -Dexec.args="0" > /tmp/$(basename $PWD)-4.log'

The p1-6 alias commands are shortcuts for cd’ing into one of the six project directories. The m1-4 alias commands start and Akka node with the appropriate port. Stdout is also redirected to the /tmp directory.