Use Kubernetes operators to extend Kubernetes’ functionality

A key advantage to using operators is that they extend the way Kubernetes already works. Think of operators as the browser plug-ins of the Kubernetes world, adding custom functionality to Kubernetes’ general functionality.

This article provides an in-depth look at operators, starting with a review of the operator structure. We use aspects of how a Kubernetes cluster works to highlight how you can extend your knowledge of Kubernetes easily to operators. This article builds on the concepts explained in the Introduction to Operators article.

Operator structure

To a Kubernetes cluster, an operator is an application that’s deployed as a workload. This specialized application manages another resource, such as another application hosted in Kubernetes. An operator manages an operand using a set of managed resources:

  • Operand: The managed resource that the operator provides as a service
  • Managed resources: The Kubernetes objects that an operator uses to create the operand

Out-of-the-box Kubernetes is good at managing stateless workloads. These workloads are similar enough that Kubernetes uses the same logic to manage all of them. Stateful workloads are more complex and each one is different, requiring custom management. Operators provide this custom management for stateful workloads.

A basic operator consists of the components depicted in this diagram:

Operator structure

The following components form the three main parts of an operator:

  • API: The data that describes the operand’s configuration; the API is made up of three parts:
    • Custom resource definition (CRD): Defines a schema of settings available for configuring the operand
    • Programmatic API: Defines the same data schema as the CRD, implemented using the operator’s programming language, such as Go
    • Custom resource (CR): An instance of the CRD that specifies values for the settings defined by the CRD; these values describe the configuration of an operand
  • Controller: The brains of the operator, the controller creates managed resources based on the description in the custom resource; controllers are implemented using the operator’s programming language, such as Go
  • Role and service account: Kubernetes RBAC resources with permissions that allow the controller to create the managed resources

A particular operator can be much more complex, but it will still contain this basic structure.

Kubernetes architecture

Let’s review the highlights of how Kubernetes works, so we can relate it to how operators work. A Kubernetes cluster consists of a control plan, worker nodes, and a cloud provider API, as shown in this diagram:

Kubernetes architecture

These components form the main parts of a cluster:

  • Worker nodes: The computers that run the workloads
  • Control plane: The components that manage the cluster, its nodes, and workloads
    • API server: An API for the control plane that clients use to manage the cluster
    • Controller manager: Runs the controller processes; each controller has a specific responsibility as part of managing the cluster

There are other components that implement the cluster, but an operator only uses the worker nodes and control plane components.

Because operators are specialized applications, they run in the worker nodes. Yet operators implement controllers, which usually run in the control plane. Because operators run controllers in the worker nodes, they effectively extend the control plane into the worker nodes.

A cluster always has two states: desired and current. The desired state represents objects that should exist in the cluster. The current state represents the objects that actually exist. Controllers manage a cluster’s state, reconciling the current state to match the desired state. Kubernetes controllers run in the control plane.

Almost every Kubernetes object includes two nested object fields that store the objects’ desired and current state — specification (represented in YAML by the spec section) and status (represented in YAML by the status section). These two fields are what an operator’s controller uses to reconcile its operands. When you want to update the desired state, you update the settings in the specification field in the custom resource. After the cluster has updated the operand, the controller will save the currently observed state of the managed resources in the status field, thereby storing the custom resource’s representation of the current state.

Workload deployment in Kubernetes

The way an operator deploys and manages a workload is similar to how an administrator deploys and manages a workload. A basic workload deployed into a Kubernetes cluster has the following structure:

Workload structure

The workload consists of a Deployment that runs a set of Pod replicas, each of which runs a duplicate Container. The Deployment is exposed as a Service, which provides a single fixed endpoint for clients to invoke behavior in the set of replicas.

How operators deploy a workload

An operator deploys a workload in very much the same way that a human administrator (or a build pipeline) deploys a workload. As illustrated below, the Kubernetes API does not know whether the client is an admin or an operator, and the cluster deploys the workload the same way.

Deploying workloads

An administrator uses client tools such as the kubectl CLI and YAML files to tell the cluster what resources to create, such as those to deploy a workload. When an admin runs a command like kubectl apply -f my-manifest.yaml, what actually happens?

  • The client tool talks to the Kubernetes API, which is the interface for the control plane.
  • The API performs its commands by changing the cluster’s desired state, such as adding a new resource described by my-manifest.yaml.
  • The controllers in the control plane make changes to the cluster’s current state to make it match the desired state.

Voilà, a workload is deployed.

When an operator deploys a workload, it does much the same thing:

  • The CR acts like the administrator’s YAML file, providing an abstract description of the resource that should be deployed.
  • The controller uses its API to read the CR and uses the Kubernetes API to create the resource described by the CR, much like an admin running kubectl commands.

The Kubernetes API doesn’t know whether its client is an admin using client tools or an operator running a controller. Either way, it performs the commands that the client invokes by updating the desired state, which Kubernetes’ controllers use to update the current state. In this way, the operator does what the admin would do, but in an automated way that’s encapsulated in its controller’s implementation.

Reconciliation loop

Let’s examine the controller manager and controllers in Kubernetes’ control plane and see how operators extend them.

Reconciliation loop is implemented in the control plane

The Kubernetes cluster is managed by a controller manager that runs controllers in a reconciliation loop in the control plane. Each controller is responsible for managing a specific part of the cluster’s behavior. The controller manager runs a control loop that gives each controller an opportunity to run by invoking its Reconcile() method.

When a controller reconciles, its task is to adjust the current state to make it match the desired state. Therefore, the control loop in the controller manager is a reconciliation loop, as this diagram shows:

Kubernetes reconciliation loop

Reconciliation loop with operators extends into the worker nodes

While Kubernetes controllers run in the control plane, the operators’ controllers run in the worker nodes. This is because an operator is deployed into a Kubernetes cluster as a workload. And just like any other workload, the cluster hosts an operator’s workload in the worker nodes.

Each operator extends the reconciliation loop by adding its custom controller to the controller manager’s list of controllers:

Reconciliation loop with operators

When the controller manager runs the reconciliation loop, it not only tells each controller in the control plane to reconcile itself, but it also tells each operator’s custom controller to reconcile itself. And as with a standard controller, Reconcile() gives the custom controller an opportunity to react to any changes since the last time it reconciled itself.

Operators are said to extend Kubernetes, and the diagram illustrates this concept. In a cluster without operators, the reconciliation loop runs controllers in the control plane. Operators add more controllers to the reconciliation loop, thereby extending Kubernetes.

Reconcile states

So far this article has covered the relationship between a cluster’s desired state and its current state, and how a controller reconciles between those two states for the resources it manages.

The way Kubernetes controllers and operators’ custom controllers reconcile is analogous:

Reconcile states

Operator controllers work one level of abstraction higher than the Kubernetes controllers. The Kubernetes controllers reconcile built-in kinds like Deployment and Job into lower-level built-in kinds like Pods. Custom controllers reconcile CRDs like Memcached and Etcd into workload kinds like Deployment and Service. So, a custom controller’s current state becomes a Kubernetes controller’s desired state.

Both kinds of controllers reconcile between desired and current state, but it takes two rounds of transformation to deploy a workload for a custom resource:

  1. The operator’s controller transforms the custom resource into a set of managed resources (a.k.a. the workload) that are the operator’s current state but are also the control plane’s desired state.
  2. The Kubernetes controllers transform the managed resources into running pods (a.k.a. the operand) in the control plane’s current state.

Summary

This article has helped you understand that operators work the same way Kubernetes does and extend a cluster to custom manage specialized resources. Operators work like Kubernetes in several respects:

  • The brains of an operator is a controller whose responsibilities are like those of a controller in the control plane.
  • The way an operator deploys a workload is similar to how an administrator deploys a workload; the control plane doesn’t know the difference.
  • The control plane implements a reconciliation loop that gives each controller an opportunity to reconcile itself, and operators add their controllers to that loop.
  • While Kubernetes controllers and custom controllers adjust between their desired state and their current state, operators manage desired state as a custom resource and reconcile it into a current state that is a set of managed resources that Kubernetes controllers use as their desired state.

With this understanding, you’ll be better prepared to write your own operators and understand how they work as a part of Kubernetes.